Contaminated and Hazardous
Waste Site Management
Mass to charge ratio, synonymous with "m/e".
Mass to charge ratio, synonymous with "m/z".
Gauge: A sensitive differential pressure or vacuum gauge manufactured by Dwyer
Instrument Co. that uses a precision diaphragm to measure pressure differences.
This gauge is manufactured in specific pressure or vacuum ranges such as 0 to
2 inches of water column. Magnehelic gauges are typically used to measure the
vacuum of SVE systems.
Geomagnetics: Geophysical methodology for studying anomalies in the geomagnetic
field due to non-uniform magnetization of the subsurface. Uses magnetometers.
Permeability: Characteristic of a material, it is proportional to the magnetism
induced in that material divided by strength of the magnetic field used.
Susceptibility: A measure of the extent to which a substance may be magnetized;
it represents the ratio of magnetization to magnetic field strength.
The magnetic moment per unit volume. It is a vector quantity. See also Magnetic
A device for measuring the earth's magnetic geomagnetic field. Variations in the
field strength may indicate changes in magnetic properties of soil and rock or
presence of ferrous metals.
A pipe with several aperatures for making multiple connections.
A tubular device for measuring fluid (or vapour) pressures. A liquid or is introduced
into the tube, the level of which is determined by fluid pressure; height of the
liquid may be read from a scale.
Locating geological, chemical or geophysical information in space (as opposed
to time, which is monitoring). The results are usually summarized os maps.
Deposits: Mostly silt and clay materials deposited under a marine environment.
Flux: Like fluid flux, but the mass of a chemical dissolved in groundwater which
moves through a specified cross-sectional area per unit time.
The solid framework of a porous medium.
Pump: A device that brings water to the surface by mechanical means.
Channel: A channel shaped by water coming from the melting of snow or glacier
A term that encompasses all of the diverse reactions by which a cell processes
food material to obtain energy and the compounds from which new cell components
Rocks: Any rock derived from pre-existing rocks by mineralogical, chemical, and/or
structural changes, essentially in the solid state, in response to marked changes
in temperature, pressure, shearing stress, and chemical environment, generally
at depth in the EarthÕs crust.
Water Line (MWL): A plot of the 18O versus 2H isotopes in water samples will plot
along this line if that water has not be effected by interaction with minerals
and has not undergone significant evaporation.
Referring to the formation of methane by certain anaerobic bacteria during the
process of anaerobic fermentation.
Blank (previously termed "reagent blank"): An analytical control consisting
of all reagents, internal standards, and surrogate standards, that is carried
through the entire analytical procedure. The method blank is used to define the
level of laboratory background and reagent contamination.
of Standard Additions (MSA): The addition of 3 increments of a standard solution
(spikes) to sample aliquots of the same size. Measurements are made on the original
and after each addition. The slope, x-intercept, and y-intercept are determined
by least-squares analysis. The analyte concentration is determined by the absolute
value of the x-intercept. Ideally, the spike volume is low relative to the sample
volume (approximately 10% of the volume). Standard addition may counteract matrix
effects; it will not counteract spectral effects. Also referred to as Standard
Obligate aerobes that function best under conditions of low oxygen concentration.
Transformation: The conversion of a chemical to other chemicals (products) and
biological cell mass.
A diminutive, representative system analogous to a larger system in make-up, development,
or configuration. As used in biodegradation treatibility studies, microcosms are
typically constructed in glass bottles or jars.
Survey: A surface geophysical survey method, undertaken on a very small scale
(typically station spacings of a few metres), and requiring a high meter sensitivity.
Measures the earth's gravitational field at different points over an area of interest.
Variations in the field are related to differences in subsurface density distributions,
which in turn are associated with changes in soil, rock, and cultural factors.
Typically used for cavern or fracture detection.
Microscopic organisms including bacteria, protozoans, yeast, fungi, mold, viruses,
The movement of chemicals, bacteria, gases, etc. in flowing water or vapour in
the subsurface. Also, a seismic/radar term whose general meaning is the correction
of the recorded image for the effects of reflector dip. A very typical result
of migration is the removal of hyperbolic events on the record resulting from
diffractions from faults and other discontinuities.
Tailings: Portions of washed or milled ore which are too poor for further treatment.
The release of inorganic chemicals from organic matter in the process of aerobic
or anaerobic decay.
The study of minerals; formation, composition, properties, classification and
Actions taken to improve site conditions by limiting, reducing, or controlling
toxicity and contamination sources.
A conceptual, mathematical, or physical system intended to represent a real system.
A model's behaviour is used to understand processes in the physical system to
which it is analogous.
Content: The amount of water lost from a soil upon drying to a constant weight,
expressed as the weight per unit weight of dry soil or as the volume of water
per unit bulk volume of the soil. For a fully saturated medium, moisture content
equals the porosity.
Diffusion: Process whereby molecules of various gases tend to intermingle and
eventually become uniformly dispersed.
Weight: The amount of mass in one mole of molecules of a substance as determined
by summing the masses of the individual atoms which make up the molecule.
Observing the change in a geophysical, hydrogeological or geochemical measurement
Wells: Special wells drilled at specific locations within, or surrounding, a hazardous
waste site where groundwater can be sampled at selected depths and studied to
obtain such information as the direction in which groundwater flows and the types
and amounts of contaminants present.
Aromatic hydrocarbons containing a single benzene ring.
Carlo Analysis: In this modelling approach, parameter uncertainty is addressed
by varying the input parameters systematically and repeating the simulations for
each set of parameters, or each realization. The results can then be averaged
or interpreted statistically.
An accumulation of unsorted unstratified glacial drift mainly till, deposited
by glacial ice. Drift deposited in the flanks of a valley glacier form a lateral
moraine. Glacial deposits which have accumulated at the front of a glacier form
a terminal moraine. Deposits of drift which have been dragged along beneath the
ice form ground moraine.