Contaminated and Hazardous
Waste Site Management
Deposits: Drift sediment deposited in contact with its supporting ice.
Rock: A rock or mineral which solidified from molten or partly molten material
i.e. from a magma.
Work Station: Consists of a microcomputer with a high-resolution colour monitor
and accompanying software which allows the manipulation, enhancement and visual
display of digital data.
Pertaining to two or more phases which, at mutual equilibrium, cannot dissolve
completely in one another.
A material which does not easily transmit a fluid. It is often defined arbitrarily
and in relation to more permeable materials present in the same area. For example,
a shale may be impermeable relative to a nearby sandstone. An impermeable boundary
is assumed to be the edge of impermeable material.
A body of water or sludge confined by a dam, dike, floodgate or other barrier.
A group of treatment technologies involving destruction of waste by controlled
burning at high temperatures, e.g., burning sludge to reduce the remaining residues
to an ash that can be disposed of safely on land, in some water, or in underground
Mineral matter deposited by water. One of the major causes of well failure is
the chemical and biological incrustation of well screen through precipitation
of calcium and magnesium carbonates or sulphates. The precipitation of iron and
manganese compounds and slime producing iron bacteria will also plug well screens.
Standard: A Contractor-prepared standard solution that is composed of analytes
from a different source than those used in the standards for the initial calibration.
Living or occurring naturally in a specific area or environment; native.
Magnetization: Magnetization caused by an applied magnetic field. Contrast with
Polarization (IP): A geophysical effect whereby electrical charge is momentarily
polarized within a material, usually a disseminated ore or a clay. This effect
is the basis for the IP method, in which a decaying voltage due to this polarization
is measured following the turn-off of the activating current in time domain surveying.
See also complex resistivity.
(EM), Induce: The process, described by Faradays Law, whereby a variable magnetic
field generates an electric field (voltage) that, in the presence of a conductor,
will produce electric currents.
Number: A quantitative measure of the quality of a target for EM methods. The
formulation varies for different targets but in general it involves the product
of target conductivity, magnetic permeability, frequency of the transmitter and
a cross-sectional dimension of the target. Dimensionless.
Coupled Plasma (ICP): a technique for the simultaneous or sequential multi-element
determination of elements in solution. The basis of the method is the measurement
of atomic emission by an optical spectroscopic technique. Characteristic atomic
line emission spectra are produced by excitation of the sample in a radio frequency
inductively coupled plasma.
A compact rock hardened and solidified by post depositional chemical and physical
The movement of water or other liquid down through soil from precipitation (rain
or snow) or from application of wastewater to the land surface.
Gallery: An engineered structure that facilitates infiltration of water into the
subsurface. Infiltration galleries may consist of one or more horizontal or vertical
perforated pipes, a single gravel-filled trench or a network of such trenches,
or a combination of these.
Rate: The rate at which water permeates the pores or interstices of the ground.
An instrument which measures the infiltration of water into soil.
Water, wastewater, or other liquid flowing into a reservoir, basin or treatment
Repository: A designated building where a file containing current information,
technical reports, reference documents and TAG application information is available.
The information repository is usually located in a public building that is convenient
for local residents, such as a public school, city hall or library.
Calibration: Analysis of analytical standards for a series of different specified
concentrations; used to define the linearity and dynamic range of the response
of the mass spectrometer or electron capture detector to the target compounds.
Introduction of the analytical sample into the instrument excitation system for
the purpose of measuring absorbance, emission, or concentration of an analyte.
May also be referred to as exposure.
Well: A well used for injecting fluids into a subsurface soil or rock layer.
Well: A well through which a fluid (liquid or gas) is allowed to enter the subsurface
under natural pressure.
Rotameter: A flow measurement device for liquids and gases that uses a flow tube
and specialized float. The float device is supported by the flowing fluid in the
clear glass or plastic flow tube. The vertical scaled flow is calibrated for the
desired flow volume/time.
To implant microorganisms on to or into a culture medium.
Constituents/Inorganics: Any substance which is not a compound of carbon, with
the exception of carbon oxides. They include metals and other ions (e.g. chloride,
That part of a periodic signal that has zero phase shift with a reference signal.
See also quadrature.
situ: In its original place; unmoved; unexcavated; remaining in the subsurface.
Check Sample: a solution containing both interfering and analyte elements of known
concentration that can be used to verify background and interelement correction
Check Standard: A multi-element standard of known concentrations prepared by the
analyst to monitor and verify instrument performance on a daily basis.
Detection Limit (IDL): Determined by multiplying by three the standard deviation
obtained for the analysis of a standard solution (each analyte in reagent water)
at a concentration
of 3x-5x IDL on three nonconsecutive days with seven consecutive
measurements per day.
Tension: The strength of the film separating two immiscible fluids (e.g., oil
and water) measured in dynes (force) per centimeter or millidynes per centimeter.
Substances which affect the analysis for the element of interest.
Between the individual grains in a rock or sediment.
Standards: Compounds added to every standard, blank, matrix spike, matrix spike
duplicate, sample (for VOAs), and sample extract (for semivolatiles) at a know
concentration prior to analysis. Internal standards are used as the basis for
quantitation of the target compounds.
A method to determine intermediate values from surrounding known values.
Transforming geophysical measurements into subsurface structure. More general
term than inversion.
Permeability: A measure of the relative ease with which a permeable medium can
transmit a fluid (liquid or gas). Intrinsic permeability is a property only of
the medium and is
independent of the nature of the fluid.
Inverting: The process of deriving a model of the subsurface that is consistent
with the geophysical data obtained. Generally refers to a more specific methodology
Being at constant temperature.
One of two or more atoms which have the same atomic number, but different mass
Having properties which are the same in all directions.
The condition in which the properties of interest (generally hydraulic properties
of the aquifer) are the same in all directions.